International Mycoses Prevention, Research, Implementation, Networks and Training

IMPRINT is a NIHR funded Global Health Research Group on HIV-associated Fungal Infections, led by Professor Joe Jarvis (LSHTM) and Professor Nelesh Govender (Wits, NICD) which aims to improve the diagnosis and treatment of the four major HIV-associated fungal infections of public health importance and to ensure that these improvements are made widely available to populations most commonly affected in Africa

Serious fungal infections are a major threat to global public health, and a field of research has often been neglected. People living with HIV are disproportionally affected by severe fungal infetions such as: Cryptococcus, Histoplasma, Pneumocystis and Talaromyces.

Running initially from 2022 until 2026, the group brings together leading academic researchers, clinical and public health leaders, non-governmental organisations (including Médecins Sans Frontières and the Drugs for Neglected Diseases initiative), and community and patient representatives together to address its aims.

The major aims of IMPRINT are:

  1. Prevention: To improve the screen-and-treat strategy to identify and treat early cryptococcal disease, before it becomes clinically apparent, in Africa and South East Asia. New tests will be evaluated for cryptococcal antigen screening, and we will assess a slow-release formulation of the oral antifungal medicine flucytosine within the ongoing EFFECT trial. Screening will be evaluated to prevent talaromycosis and histoplasmosis in South East Asia and histoplasmosis and emergomycosis in Africa.
  2. Treatment: To implement new, short-course treatments for cryptococcal meningitis in routine care in African and South East Asian countries, building on the results of two landmark trials, ACTA and AMBITION-cm. These trials were completed by partners in the consortium and both demonstrated improved survival with regimens that are practical and affordable in resource-limited settings. And to support early work in talaromycosis using a single high-dose liposomal amphotericin B treatment approach used for cryptococcal meningitis in the AMBITION-cm trial, and to lay the foundations for future studies in histoplasmosis.
  3. Health Economics: To generate essential economic data to support the different screening and treatment approaches being investigated for cryptococcosis, histoplasmosis and talaromycosis. These individual and, if appropriate, combined analyses will be crucial evidence in the group’s efforts to effect the policy changes needed to reduce deaths from HIV-associated fungal infections.
  4. Diagnostics: PCP is notoriously difficult to diagnose. We will initiate a programme of laboratory-based work on PCP, enrolling a group of patients, and using their biological samples to develop and test new diagnostic tests for PCP.
  5. Training: As this is integral to the work proposed, to support a comprehensive training and capacity strengthening programme in clinical epidemiology, health economics and/or public health, and laboratory research. Training will be enabled by a recent strategic UK-African partnership and will build on extensive experience of training and capacity strengthening within existing multinational projects. The group’s goal is to train and mentor clinicians and researchers who will help drive and develop this.
  6. partnership beyond the 4-year grant period.
  7. Community Engagement: To ensure that the voices of people living with advanced HIV disease and community representatives are meaningfully included and heard across the entire scope of work, the group will develop strategies and tools to increase patient health literacy around HIV-associated fungal infections, collect qualitative data to learn from the experience of patients with HIV-associated fungal infections and facilitate meaningful engagement through a community advisory board.

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